White Papers

Solving Airplane Safety Requirements with Design Diversity

This white paper discusses the simultaneous failures that may occur due to common mode failures and how these can be mitigated through design diversity to meet the numerical safety requirements of the airplane.

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Principles of Safety Critical Software Design: Applying Avionics Safety Design to Automotive and Industrial Markets

This white paper will provide the history and current state of the art in safety critical design for commercial and military avionics display systems. These principles will then be extrapolated to address evolving safety considerations in markets such as autonomous vehicles, commercial UAVs and cloud edge autonomous machines. 

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A Safety Critical Compositor for OpenGL SC 1.0.1 and OpenGL SC 2.0

This white paper details how a compositor works, the benefits and drawbacks of using different compositor solutions, and why using a compositor is conducive to safety certifiability to the most stringent levels for avionics, automotive, rail and other environments requiring safety critical operation.

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Eight Concerns with Graphics Processors in Safety Critical Applications

This white paper examines the concerns and mitigations with using COTS Graphics Processors (CGPs or GPUs in general commercial terms) in safety critical applications requiring accelerated 2D and 3D safety rendering.

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Multi-Level Security and GPU Applications in an Embedded System

GPU architectures have vulnerabilities that could lead to unclassified applications accessing classified data, either maliciously or accidentally. This white paper describes the areas of vulnerability, consideration for multi-level security and how to support graphics applications requiring multi-level security.

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How to Implement Multiple GPU Applications in an Embedded System

Modern multi-core processors and Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) provide support for running multiple applications that improve performance, including graphics application performance. This white paper identifies the key architectures enabled by current multicore processors and RTOS to support multiple graphics applications and describes how OpenGL drivers can support these architectures.

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Enabling High-Performance Graphics Processing for Military and Aerospace Applications with SOC Processors and OpenGL

Looking for low Size Weight and Power (SWaP) processing solutions without giving up high performance safety certifiable graphics?   This joint white paper with AMD provides an introduction to solution worth considering. 

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The AMD Radeon E8860, a Good Choice for Safety Critical Avionics Systems

If you are looking for a high performance graphics processor capable of driving multiple displays in an safety critical avionics system, then the AMD Radeon™ E8860 is a great choice.   This joint white paper with AMD describes the benefits of the Radeon E8860 leading to its increased use on next generation commercial and military avionics applications, and why you may want to consider the Radeon E8860 too.

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Should You Be Using OpenGL SC 2.0?

A new Safety Critical OpenGL® specification, OpenGL SC 2.0, was released by the Khronos Group April 2016.  This paper describes how OpenGL SC 2.0 fits into the overall scheme of OpenGL specifications leading into a comparison to the earlier Safety Critical OpenGL specification, OpenGL SC 1.0.1, and concluding with an introduction to programmable shaders, now available to Safety Critical applications through OpenGL SC 2.0, enabling a higher degree of capability through new levels of performance and control.   

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Moisture and Contamination Considerations for Long Term Storage of End of Life Electronic Components

The applicable IPC/JEDEC standards addressing moisture sensitive devices are J-STD-020D.1 and J-STD-033B.1 and GEIA-STD-003.  The standards deal primarily with moisture intrusion into device packages and the threat of destructive delamination during solder reflow.  This failure mechanism has proven to be a significant concern and becomes more critical in the context of RoHS compliant products, long term storage and very fine geometry VLSI components.  Many now believe the IPC/JEDEC standards are not stringent or comprehensive enough to account for the case where components are irreplaceable and where systems are mission critical...

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An Analysis of Solderability and Manufacturability of Moisture Sensitive Electronic Components After Long Term Environmentally Controlled Storage

The subject device is comprised of five (5) very large scale integrated circuits mounted on a high density multi-chip hybrid module.  The part number of the hybrid module is 216T9NGBGA13FHG with a device description of ATI (now an AMD company) Mobility Radeon ™ 9000 M9-CSP64 Graphics Processor Unit, RoHS compliant.  The module is an FR4 material Printed Circuit Board (PCB) mounted with an ATI designed GPU circuit in a plastic encapsulated Fine Ball Grid Array (FBGA) package.   This is then mounted on the bottom (ball) side of the PCB and conformal coated...Learn More 

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COTS GPU Selection Considerations for Mil-Aero Electronics

COTS graphics processors (GPUs) have become popular components in mil-aero display systems with high performance graphics processing requirements. This article provides several GPU selection considerations that can impact the success of a display system design and delivery schedule as well as total life cycle systems management costs...Learn More

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Electronic Systems Obsolescence Management SF-2.0 (Book)

A new approach to managing long-term supply of COTS electronics for Aerospace, Military, and Industrial system manufacturers

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